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they received, in the gift of syphilis, the full benefit of civilization
and Christianity, which (Lambkin points out) has been largely the cause of
the spread of the disease by breaking down social customs and emancipating
the women. Christianity is powerful enough to break down the old morality,
but not powerful enough to build up a new morality (_British Medical
Journal_, October 3, 1908, p. 1037).
 Even within the limits of the English army it is found In India
(H.C. French, _Syphilis in the Army_, 1907) that venereal disease is ten
times more frequent among British troops than among Native troops. Outside
of national armies it is found, by admission to hospital and death rates,
that the United States stands far away at the head for frequency of
venereal disease, being followed by Great Britain, then France and
Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany.
 There is no dispute concerning the antiquity of gonorrhoea in the
Old World as there is regarding syphilis. The disease was certainly known
at a very remote period. Even Esarhaddon, the famous King of Assyria,
referred to in the Old Testament, was treated by the priests for a
disorder which, as described in the cuneiform documents of the time, could
only have been gonorrhoea. The disease was also well known to the ancient
Egyptians, and evidently common, for they recorded many prescriptions for
its treatment (Oefele, "Gonorrhoe 1350 vor Christi Geburt," _Monatshefte
fuer Praktische Dermatologie_, 1899, p. 260).
 Cf. Memorandum by Sydney Stephenson, Report of Ophthalmia Neonatorum
Committee, _British Medical Journal_, May 8, 1909.
 The extent of these evils is set forth, e.g., in a comprehensive
essay by Taylor, _American Journal Obstetrics_, January, 1908.
 Neisser brings together figures bearing on the prevalence of
gonorrhoea in Germany, Senator and Kaminer, _Health and Disease in
Relation to Marriage_, vol. ii, pp. 486-492.
 _Lancet_, September 23, 1882. As regards women, Dr. Frances Ivens
(_British Medical Journal_, June 19, 1909) has found at Liverpool that 14
per cent. of gynaecological cases revealed the presence of gonorrhoea. They
were mostly poor respectable married women. This is probably a high
proportion, as Liverpool is a busy seaport, but it is less than Saenger's
estimate of 18 per cent.
 E.H. Grandin, _Medical Record_, May 26, 1906.
 E.W. Cushing, "Sociological Aspects of Gonorrhoea," _Transactions
American Gynecological Society_, vol. xxii, 1897.
 It is only in very small communities ruled by an autocratic power
with absolute authority to control conditions and to examine persons of
both sexes that reglementation becomes in any degree effectual. This is
well shown by Dr. W.E. Harwood, who describes the system he organized in
the mines of the Minnesota Iron Company (_Journal American Medical
Association_, December 22, 1906). The women in the brothels on the
company's estate were of the lowest class, and disease was very prevalent.
Careful examination of the women was established, and control of the men,
who, immediately on becoming diseased, were bound to declare by what woman
they had been infected. The woman was responsible for the medical bill of
the man she infected, and even for his board, if incapacitated, and the
women were compelled to maintain a fund for their own hospital expenses
when required. In this way venereal disease, though not entirely uprooted,
was very greatly diminished.
 A clear and comprehensive statement of the present position of the
question is given by Iwan Bloch, _Das Sexualleben Unserer Zeit_, Chs.
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