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Table of contents
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.1
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.2
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.3
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.4
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.5
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.6
FOOTNOTES
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.1
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.2
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.3
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.4
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.5
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.6
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.7
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.8
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.9
MARRIAGE-10.1
MARRIAGE-10.2
MARRIAGE-10.3
MARRIAGE-10.4
MARRIAGE-10.5
MARRIAGE-10.6
MARRIAGE-10.7
MARRIAGE-10.8
MARRIAGE-10.9
MARRIAGE-10.10
MARRIAGE-10.11
MARRIAGE-10.12
FOOTNOTES
THE ART OF LOVE-11.1
THE ART OF LOVE-11.2
THE ART OF LOVE-11.3
THE ART OF LOVE-11.4
THE ART OF LOVE-11.5
THE ART OF LOVE-11.6
THE ART OF LOVE-11.7
THE ART OF LOVE-11.8
THE ART OF LOVE-11.9
THE ART OF LOVE-11.10
THE ART OF LOVE-11.11
FOOTNOTES
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.1
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.2
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.3
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.4
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.5
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.6
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.7
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.8
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.9
FOOTNOTES
INDEX OF AUTHORS

of various classes, the alcoholic, the tuberculous, and instinctive 

criminals, the choice of cases for operation to be made by a commission of 

experts who would examine school-children, candidates for public 

employments, or persons about to marry.[449] This movement rapidly gained 

ground, and in 1905 at the annual meeting of Swiss alienists it was 

unanimously agreed that the sterilization of the insane is desirable, and 

that it is necessary that the question should be legally regulated. It is 

in Switzerland, indeed, that the first steps have been taken in Europe to 

carry out castration as a measure of social prophylaxis. The sixteenth 

yearly report (1907) of the Cantonal asylum at Wil describes four cases of 

castration, two in men and two in women, performed--with the permission of 

the patients and the civil authorities--for social reasons; both women had 

previously had illegitimate children who were a burden on the community, 

and all four patients were sexually abnormal; the operation enabled the 

patients to be liberated and to work, and the results were considered in 

every respect satisfactory to all concerned.[450] 

 

The introduction of castration as a method of negative eugenics 

has been facilitated by the use of new methods of performing it 

without risk, and without actual removal of the testes or 

ovaries. For men, there is the simple method of vasectomy, as 

recommended by Naecke and many others. For women, there is the 

corresponding, and almost equally simple and harmless method of 

Kehrer, by section and ligation of the Fallopian tubes through 

the vagina, as recommended by Kisch, or Rose's very similar 

procedure, easily carried out in a few minutes by an experienced 

hand, as recommended by Zuccarelli. 

 

It has been found that repeated exposure to the X-rays produces 

sterility in both sexes, alike in animals and men, and X-ray 

workers have to adopt various precautions to avoid suffering from 

this effect. It has been suggested that the application of the 

X-rays would be a good substitute for castration; it appears that 

the effects of the application are only likely to last a few 

years, which, in some doubtful cases, might be an advantage. (See 

_British Medical Journal_, Aug. 13, 1904; ib., March 11, 1905; 

ib., July 6, 1907.) 

 

It is scarcely possible, it seems to me, to view castration as a method of 

negative eugenics with great enthusiasm. The recklessness, moreover, with 

which it is sometimes proposed to apply it by law--owing no doubt to the 

fact that it is not so obviously repulsive as the less radical procedure 

of abortion--ought to render us very cautious. We must, too, dismiss the 

idea of castration as a punishment; as such it is not merely barbarous but 

degrading and is unlikely to have a beneficial effect. As a method of 

negative eugenics it should never be carried out except with the subject's 

consent. The fact that in some cases it might be necessary to enforce 

seclusion in the absence of castration would doubtless be a fact exerting 

influence in favor of such consent; but the consent is essential if the 

subject of the operation is to be safeguarded from degradation. A man who 

has been degraded and embittered by an enforced castration might not be 

dangerous to posterity, but might very easily become a dangerous member of 

the society in which he actually lived. With due precautions and 

safeguards, castration may doubtless play a certain part in the elevation 

and improvement of the race.[451] 

 

The methods we have been considering, in so far as they limit the 


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