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proved by the fact that it is now considered by many that the very term
"conjugal rights" arose merely by a mistake for "conjugal rites." Before
1733, when legal proceedings were in Latin, the term used was _obsequies_,
and "rights," instead of "rites," seems to have been merely a typesetter's
error (see _Notes and Queries_, May 16, 1891; May 6, 1899). This
explanation, it should be added, only applies to the consecrated term, for
there can be no doubt that the underlying idea has an existence quite
independent of the term.
 "In most marriages that are not happy," it is said in Rafford Pyke's
thoughtful paper on "Husbands and Wives" (_Cosmopolitan_, 1902), "it is
the wife rather than the husband who is oftenest disappointed."
 See "Analysis of the Sexual Impulse," in vol. iii of these
 It is well recognized by erotic writers, however, that women may
sometimes take a comparatively active part. Thus Vatsyayana says that
sometimes the woman may take the man's position, and with flowers in her
hair and smiles mixed with sighs and bent head, caressing him and pressing
her breasts against him, say: "You have been my conqueror; it is my turn
to make you cry for mercy."
 Thus among the Swahili it is on the third day after marriage that
the bridegroom is allowed, by custom, to complete defloration, according
to Zache, _Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_, 1899, II-III, p. 84.
 _De l'Amour_, vol. ii, p. 57.
 Robert Michels, "Brautstandsmoral," _Geschlecht und Gesellschaft_,
Jahrgang I, Heft 12.
 I may refer once more to the facts brought together in volume iii of
these _Studies_, "The Analysis of the Sexual Impulse."
 This has been pointed out, for instance, by Rutgers, "Sexuelle
Differenzierung," _Die Neue Generation_, Dec., 1908.
 Thus, among the Eskimo, who practice temporary wife-exchange,
Rasmussen states that "a man generally discovers that his own wife is, in
spite of all, the best."
 "I have always held with the late Professor Laycock," remarks
Clouston (_Hygiene of Mind_, p. 214), "who was a very subtle student of
human nature, that a married couple need not be always together to be
happy, and that in fact reasonable absences and partings tend towards
ultimate and closer union." That the prolongation of passion is only
compatible with absence scarcely needs pointing out; as Mary
Wollstonecraft long since said (_Rights of Woman_, original ed., p. 61),
it is only in absence or in misfortune that passion is durable. It may be
added, however, that in her love-letters to Imlay she wrote: "I have ever
declared that two people who mean to live together ought not to be long
 "Viewed broadly," says Arnold L. Gesell, in his interesting study of
"Jealousy" (_American Journal of Psychology_, Oct., 1906), "jealousy seems
such a necessary psychological accompaniment to biological behavior,
amidst competitive struggle, that one is tempted to consider it
genetically among the oldest of the emotions, synonymous almost with the
will to live, and to make it scarcely less fundamental than fear or anger.
In fact, jealousy readily passes into anger, and is itself a brand of
fear.... In sociability and mutual aid we see the other side of the
shield; but jealousy, however anti-social it may be, retains a function in
zooelogical economy: viz., to conserve the individual as against the group.
It is Nature's great corrective for the purely social emotions."
 Many illustrations are brought together in Gesell's study of
 Jealousy among lower races may be disguised or modified by tribal
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