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Table of contents
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.1
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.2
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.3
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.4
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.5
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.6
FOOTNOTES
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.1
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.2
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.3
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.4
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.5
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.6
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.7
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.8
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.9
MARRIAGE-10.1
MARRIAGE-10.2
MARRIAGE-10.3
MARRIAGE-10.4
MARRIAGE-10.5
MARRIAGE-10.6
MARRIAGE-10.7
MARRIAGE-10.8
MARRIAGE-10.9
MARRIAGE-10.10
MARRIAGE-10.11
MARRIAGE-10.12
FOOTNOTES
THE ART OF LOVE-11.1
THE ART OF LOVE-11.2
THE ART OF LOVE-11.3
THE ART OF LOVE-11.4
THE ART OF LOVE-11.5
THE ART OF LOVE-11.6
THE ART OF LOVE-11.7
THE ART OF LOVE-11.8
THE ART OF LOVE-11.9
THE ART OF LOVE-11.10
THE ART OF LOVE-11.11
FOOTNOTES
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.1
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.2
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.3
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.4
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.5
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.6
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.7
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.8
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.9
FOOTNOTES
INDEX OF AUTHORS

being reckoned to the man to whom the woman had been first given 

in marriage (see, e.g., Traill's _Social England_, vol. i, p. 

103, for a discussion of this point). The husband's assistant, 

also, who might be called in to impregnate the wife when the 

husband was impotent, existed in Germany, and was indeed a 

general Indo-Germanic institution (Schrader, _Reallexicon_, art. 

"Zeugungshelfer"). The corresponding institution of the concubine 

has been still more deeply rooted and widespread. Up to 

comparatively modern times, indeed, in accordance with the 

traditions of Roman law, the concubine held a recognized and 

honorable position, below that of a wife but with definite legal 

rights, though it was not always, or indeed usually, legal for a 

married man to have a concubine. In ancient Wales, as well as in 

Rome, the concubine was accepted and never despised (R.B. Holt, 

"Marriage Laws of the Cymri," _Journal Anthropological 

Institute_, Aug. and Nov., 1898, p. 155). The fact that when a 

concubine entered the house of a married man her dignity and 

legal position were less than those of the wife preserved 

domestic peace and safeguarded the wife's interests. (A Korean 

husband cannot take a concubine under his roof without his wife's 

permission, but she rarely objects, and seems to enjoy the 

companionship, says Louise Jordan Miln, _Quaint Korea_, 1895, p. 

92.) In old Europe, we must remember, as Dufour points out in 

speaking of the time of Charlemagne (_Histoire de la 

Prostitution_, vol. iii, p. 226), "concubine" was an honorable 

term; the concubine was by no means a mistress, and she could be 

accused of adultery just the same as a wife. In England, late in 

the thirteenth century, Bracton speaks of the _concubina 

legitima_ as entitled to certain rights and considerations, and 

it was the same in other parts of Europe, sometimes for several 

centuries later (see Lea, _History of Sacerdotal Celibacy_, vol. 

i, p. 230). The early Christian Church was frequently inclined to 

recognize the concubine, at all events if attached to an 

unmarried man, for we may trace in the Church "the wish to look 

upon every permanent union of man or woman as possessing the 

character of a marriage in the eyes of God, and, therefore, in 

the judgment of the Church" (art. "Concubinage," Smith and 

Cheetham, _Dictionary of Christian Antiquities_). This was the 

feeling of St. Augustine (who had himself, before his conversion, 

had a concubine who was apparently a Christian), and the Council 

of Toledo admitted an unmarried man who was faithful to a 

concubine. As the law of the Catholic Church grew more and more 

rigid, it necessarily lost touch with human needs. It was not so 

in the early Church during the great ages of its vital growth. In 

those ages even the strenuous general rule of monogamy was 

relaxed when such relaxation seemed reasonable. This was so, for 

instance, in the case of sexual impotency. Thus early in the 

eighth century Gregory II, writing to Boniface, the apostle of 

Germany, in answer to a question by the latter, replies that when 

a wife is incapable from physical infirmity from fulfilling her 

marital duties it is permissible for the husband to take a second 

wife, though he must not withdraw maintenance from the first. A 

little later Archbishop Egbert of York, in his _Dialogus de 

Institutione Ecclesiastica_, though more cautiously, admits that 

when one of two married persons is infirm the other, with the 


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