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Table of contents
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.1
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.2
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.3
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.4
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.5
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.6
FOOTNOTES
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.1
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.2
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.3
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.4
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.5
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.6
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.7
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.8
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.9
MARRIAGE-10.1
MARRIAGE-10.2
MARRIAGE-10.3
MARRIAGE-10.4
MARRIAGE-10.5
MARRIAGE-10.6
MARRIAGE-10.7
MARRIAGE-10.8
MARRIAGE-10.9
MARRIAGE-10.10
MARRIAGE-10.11
MARRIAGE-10.12
FOOTNOTES
THE ART OF LOVE-11.1
THE ART OF LOVE-11.2
THE ART OF LOVE-11.3
THE ART OF LOVE-11.4
THE ART OF LOVE-11.5
THE ART OF LOVE-11.6
THE ART OF LOVE-11.7
THE ART OF LOVE-11.8
THE ART OF LOVE-11.9
THE ART OF LOVE-11.10
THE ART OF LOVE-11.11
FOOTNOTES
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.1
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.2
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.3
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.4
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.5
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.6
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.7
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.8
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.9
FOOTNOTES
INDEX OF AUTHORS

things has prevailed ever since divorce was established, but it seems to 

have become too familiar to excite either pain or disgust. Yet, as Adner 

has pointed out,[344] it has moved in a direction contrary to the general 

tendency of civilization, not only by increasing the inquisitorial 

authority of public courts but by emphasizing merely external causes of 

divorce and abolishing the more subtle internal causes which constantly 

grow in importance with the refinement of civilization. 

 

 

In Austria until recent years, Canon law ruled absolutely, and matrimony 

was indissoluble, as it still remains for the Catholic population. The 

results as regards matrimonial happiness were in the highest degree 

deplorable. Half a century ago Gross-Hoffinger investigated the marital 

happiness of 100 Viennese couples of all social classes, without choice of 

cases, and presented the results in detail. He found that 48 couples were 

positively unhappy, only 16 were undoubtedly happy, and even among these 

there was only one case in which happiness resulted from mutual 

faithfulness, happiness in the other cases being only attained by setting 

aside the question of fidelity.[345] This picture, it is to be hoped, no 

longer remains true. There is an influential Austrian Marriage Reform 

Association, publishing a journal called _Die Fessel_, or The Fetter. "One 

was chained to another," we are told. "In certain circumstances this must 

have been the worst and most torturing penalty of all. The most bizarre 

and repulsive couplings took place. There were, it is true, many 

affectionate companionships of the chain. But there were many more which 

inflicted an eternity of suffering upon one of the pair." This quotation, 

it must be added, has nothing to do with what the Canonists, borrowing the 

technical term for a prisoner's shackles, suggestively termed the 

_vinculum matrimonii_; it was written many years ago concerning the 

galleys of the old French convict system. It is, however, recalled to 

one's mind by the title which the Austrian Marriage Reform Association has 

given to its official organ. 

 

Russia, where the marriage laws are arranged by the Holy Synod aided by 

jurists, stands almost alone among the great countries in the reasonable 

simplicity of its divorce provisions. Before 1907 divorce was very 

difficult to obtain in Russia, but in that year it became possible for a 

married couple to separate by mutual consent and after living apart for a 

year to become thereby entitled to a divorce enabling them to remarry. 

This provision is in accordance with the humane conception of the sexual 

relationship which has always tended to prevail in Russia, whither, it 

must be remembered, the stern and unnatural ideals of compulsory celibacy 

cherished by the Western Church never completely penetrated; the clergy of 

the Eastern Church are married, though the marriage must take place before 

they enter the priesthood, and they could not sympathize with the 

anti-sexual tone of the marriage regulations laid down by the celibate 

clergy of the west. 


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