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Table of contents
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.1
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.2
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.3
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.4
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.5
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.6
FOOTNOTES
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.1
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.2
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.3
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.4
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.5
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.6
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.7
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.8
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.9
MARRIAGE-10.1
MARRIAGE-10.2
MARRIAGE-10.3
MARRIAGE-10.4
MARRIAGE-10.5
MARRIAGE-10.6
MARRIAGE-10.7
MARRIAGE-10.8
MARRIAGE-10.9
MARRIAGE-10.10
MARRIAGE-10.11
MARRIAGE-10.12
FOOTNOTES
THE ART OF LOVE-11.1
THE ART OF LOVE-11.2
THE ART OF LOVE-11.3
THE ART OF LOVE-11.4
THE ART OF LOVE-11.5
THE ART OF LOVE-11.6
THE ART OF LOVE-11.7
THE ART OF LOVE-11.8
THE ART OF LOVE-11.9
THE ART OF LOVE-11.10
THE ART OF LOVE-11.11
FOOTNOTES
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.1
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.2
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.3
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.4
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.5
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.6
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.7
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.8
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.9
FOOTNOTES
INDEX OF AUTHORS

all probability, this system of what has been called group 

marriage, serving as it does to bind more or less closely 

together groups of individuals who are mutually interested in one 

another's welfare, has been one of the most powerful agents in 

the early stages of the upward development of the human race" 

(Spencer and Gillen, _Northern Tribes of Central Australia_, p. 

74; cf. A.W. Howitt, _The Native Tribes of South-East 

Australia_). Group-marriage, with female descent, as found in 

Australia, tends to become transformed by various stages of 

progress into individual marriage with descent in the male line, 

a survival of group-marriage perhaps persisting in the 

much-discussed _jus primae noctis_. (It should be added that Mr. 

N.W. Thomas, in his book on _Kinship and Marriage in Australia_, 

1908, concludes that group-marriage in Australia has not been 

demonstrated, and that Professor Westermarck, in his _Origin and 

Development of the Moral Ideas_, as in his previous _History of 

Human Marriage_, maintains a skeptical opinion in regard to 

group-marriage generally; he thinks the Urabunna custom may have 

developed out of ordinary individual marriage, and regards the 

group-marriage theory as "the residuary legatee of the old theory 

of promiscuity." Durkheim also believes that the Australian 

marriage system is not primitive, "Organisation Matrimoniale 

Australienne," _L'Annee Sociologique_, eighth year, 1905). With 

the attainment of a certain level of social progress it is easy 

to see that a wide and complicated system of sexual relationships 

ceases to have its value, and a more or less qualified monogamy 

tends to prevail as more in harmony with the claims of social 

stability and executive masculine energy. 

 

The best historical discussion of marriage is still probably 

Westermarck's _History of Human Marriage_, though at some points 

it now needs to be corrected or supplemented; among more recent 

books dealing with primitive sexual conceptions may be specially 

mentioned Crawley's _Mystic Rose_, while the facts concerning the 

transformation of marriage among the higher human races are set 

forth in G.E. Howard's _History of Matrimonial Institutions_ (3 

vols.), which contains copious bibliographical references. There 

is an admirably compact, but clear and comprehensive, sketch of 

the development of modern marriage in Pollock and Maitland, 

_History of English Law_, vol. ii. 

 

It is necessary to make allowance for variations, thereby shunning the 

extreme theorists who insist on moulding all facts to their theories, but 

we may conclude that--as the approximately equal number of the sexes 

indicates--in the human species, as among many of the higher animals, a 

more or less permanent monogamy has on the whole tended to prevail. That 

is a fact of great significance in its implications. For we have to 

realize that we are here in the presence of a natural fact. Sexual 

relationships, in human as in animal societies, follow a natural law, 

oscillating on each side of the norm, and there is no place for the theory 

that that law was imposed artificially. If all artificial "laws" could be 

abolished the natural order of the sexual relationships would continue to 

subsist substantially as at present. Virtue, said Cicero, is but Nature 

carried out to the utmost. Or, as Holbach put it, arguing that our 

institutions tend whither Nature tends, "art is only Nature acting by the 

help of the instruments she has herself made." Shakespeare had already 


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