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Table of contents
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.1
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.2
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.3
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.4
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.5
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.6
FOOTNOTES
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.1
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.2
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.3
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.4
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.5
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.6
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.7
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.8
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.9
MARRIAGE-10.1
MARRIAGE-10.2
MARRIAGE-10.3
MARRIAGE-10.4
MARRIAGE-10.5
MARRIAGE-10.6
MARRIAGE-10.7
MARRIAGE-10.8
MARRIAGE-10.9
MARRIAGE-10.10
MARRIAGE-10.11
MARRIAGE-10.12
FOOTNOTES
THE ART OF LOVE-11.1
THE ART OF LOVE-11.2
THE ART OF LOVE-11.3
THE ART OF LOVE-11.4
THE ART OF LOVE-11.5
THE ART OF LOVE-11.6
THE ART OF LOVE-11.7
THE ART OF LOVE-11.8
THE ART OF LOVE-11.9
THE ART OF LOVE-11.10
THE ART OF LOVE-11.11
FOOTNOTES
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.1
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.2
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.3
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.4
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.5
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.6
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.7
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.8
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.9
FOOTNOTES
INDEX OF AUTHORS

primitive promiscuity, and that at the present day there are few, 

if any, savage peoples living in genuine unrestricted sexual 

promiscuity. This theory of a primitive promiscuity seems to have 

been suggested, as J.A. Godfrey has pointed out (_Science of 

Sex_, p. 112), by the existence in civilized societies of 

promiscuous prostitution, though this kind of promiscuity was 

really the result, rather than the origin, of marriage. On the 

other hand, it can scarcely be said that there is any convincing 

evidence of primitive strict monogamy beyond the assumption that 

early man continued the sexual habits of the anthropoid apes. It 

would seem probable, however, that the great forward step 

involved in passing from ape to man was associated with a change 

in sexual habits involving the temporary adoption of a more 

complex system than monogamy. It is difficult to see in what 

other social field than that of sex primitive man could find 

exercise for the developing intellectual and moral aptitudes, the 

subtle distinctions and moral restraints, which the strict 

monogamy practiced by animals could afford no scope for. It is 

also equally difficult to see on what basis other than that of a 

more closely associated sexual system the combined and harmonious 

efforts needed for social progress could have developed. It is 

probable that at least one of the motives for exogamy, or 

marriage outside the group, is (as was probably first pointed out 

by St. Augustine in his _De Civitate Dei_) the need of creating a 

larger social circle, and so facilitating social activities and 

progress. Exactly the same end is effected by a complex marriage 

system binding a large number of people together by common 

interests. The strictly small and confined monogamic family, 

however excellently it subserved the interests of the offspring, 

contained no promise of a wider social progress. We see this 

among both ants and bees, who of all animals, have attained the 

highest social organization; their progress was only possible 

through a profound modification of the systems of sexual 

relationship. As Espinas said many years ago (in his suggestive 

work, _Des Societes Animales_): "The cohesion of the family and 

the probabilities for the birth of societies are inverse." Or, as 

Schurtz more recently pointed out, although individual marriage 

has prevailed more or less from the first, early social 

institutions, early ideas and early religion involved sexual 

customs which modified a strict monogamy. 

 

The most primitive form of complex human marriage which has yet 

been demonstrated as still in existence is what is called 

group-marriage, in which all the women of one class are regarded 

as the actual, or at all events potential, wives of all the men 

in another class. This has been observed among some central 

Australian tribes, a people as primitive and as secluded from 

external influence as could well be found, and there is evidence 

to show that it was formerly more widespread among them. "In the 

Urabunna tribe, for example," say Spencer and Gillen, "a group of 

men actually do have, continually and as a normal condition, 

marital relations with a group of women. This state of affairs 

has nothing whatever to do with polygamy any more than it has 

with polyandry. It is simply a question of a group of men and a 

group of women who may lawfully have what we call marital 

relations. There is nothing whatever abnormal about it, and, in 


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