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Table of contents
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.1
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.2
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.3
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.4
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.5
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.6
FOOTNOTES
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.1
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.2
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.3
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.4
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.5
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.6
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.7
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.8
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.9
MARRIAGE-10.1
MARRIAGE-10.2
MARRIAGE-10.3
MARRIAGE-10.4
MARRIAGE-10.5
MARRIAGE-10.6
MARRIAGE-10.7
MARRIAGE-10.8
MARRIAGE-10.9
MARRIAGE-10.10
MARRIAGE-10.11
MARRIAGE-10.12
FOOTNOTES
THE ART OF LOVE-11.1
THE ART OF LOVE-11.2
THE ART OF LOVE-11.3
THE ART OF LOVE-11.4
THE ART OF LOVE-11.5
THE ART OF LOVE-11.6
THE ART OF LOVE-11.7
THE ART OF LOVE-11.8
THE ART OF LOVE-11.9
THE ART OF LOVE-11.10
THE ART OF LOVE-11.11
FOOTNOTES
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.1
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.2
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.3
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.4
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.5
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.6
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.7
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.8
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.9
FOOTNOTES
INDEX OF AUTHORS

the chief factor in the determination of these points being the interests 

of the offspring. In actual practice, however, sexual unions, not only in 

Man but among the higher animals, tend to last beyond the needs of the 

offspring of a single season, while the fact that in most species the 

numbers of males and females are approximately equal makes it inevitable 

that both among animals and in Man the family is produced by a single 

sexual couple, that is to say that monogamy is, with however many 

exceptions, necessarily the fundamental rule. 

 

It will thus be seen that marriage centres in the child, and has at the 

outset no reason for existence apart from the welfare of the offspring. 

Among those animals of lowly organization which are able to provide for 

themselves from the beginning of existence there is no family and no need 

for marriage. Among human races, when sexual unions are not followed by 

offspring, there may be other reasons for the continuance of the union 

but they are not reasons in which either Nature or society is in the 

slightest degree directly concerned. The marriage which grew up among 

animals by heredity on the basis of natural selection, and which has been 

continued by the lower human races through custom and tradition, by the 

more civilized races through the superimposed regulative influence of 

legal institutions, has been marriage for the sake of the offspring.[312] 

Even in civilized races among whom the proportion of sterile marriages is 

large, marriage tends to be so constituted as always to assume the 

procreation of children and to involve the permanence required by such 

procreation. 

 

Among birds, which from the point of view of erotic development 

stand at the head of the animal world, monogamy frequently 

prevails (according to some estimates among 90 per cent.), and 

unions tend to be permanent; there is an approximation to the 

same condition among some of the higher mammals, especially the 

anthropoid apes; thus among gorillas and oran-utans permanent 

monogamic marriages take place, the young sometimes remaining 

with the parents to the age of six, while any approach to loose 

behavior on the part of the wife is severely punished by the 

husband. The variations that occur are often simply matters of 

adaptation to circumstances; thus, according to J.G. Millais 

(_Natural History of British Ducks_, pp. 8, 63), the Shoveler 

duck, though normally monogamic, will become polyandric when 

males are in excess, the two males being in constant and amicable 

attendance on the female without signs of jealousy; among the 

monogamic mallards, similarly, polygyny and polyandry may also 

occur. See also R.W. Shufeldt, "Mating Among Birds," _American 

Naturalist_, March, 1907; for mammal marriages, a valuable paper 

by Robert Mueller, "Saeugethierehen," _Sexual-Probleme_, Jan., 

1909, and as regards the general prevalence of monogamy, Woods 

Hutchinson, "Animal Marriage," _Contemporary Review_, Oct., 1904, 

and Sept., 1905. 

 

There has long been a dispute among the historians of marriage as 

to the first form of human marriage. Some assume a primitive 

promiscuity gradually modified in the direction of monogamy; 

others argue that man began where the anthropoid apes left off, 

and that monogamy has prevailed, on the whole, throughout. Both 

these opposed views, in an extreme form, seem untenable, and the 

truth appears to lie midway. It has been shown by various 

writers, and notably Westermarck (_History of Human Marriage_, 

Chs. IV-VI), that there is no sound evidence in favor of 


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