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 Donaldson, _Woman_, pp. 109, 120.
 _Mercator_, iv, 5.
 Digest XLVIII, 13, 5.
 Hobhouse, _Morals in Evolution_, vol. i, p. 213.
 For an account of the work of some of the less known of these
pioneers, see a series of articles by Harriet McIlquham in the
_Westminster Review_, especially Nov., 1898, and Nov., 1903.
 The influence of Christianity on the position of women has been well
discussed by Lecky, _History of European Morals_, vol. ii, pp. 316 et
seq., and more recently by Donaldson, _Woman_, Bk. iii.
 Migne, _Patrologia_, vol. clviii, p. 680.
 Rosa Mayreder, "Einiges ueber die Starke Faust," _Zur Kritik der
 Rasmussen (_People of the Polar North_, p. 56), describes a
ferocious quarrel between husband and wife, who each in turn knocked the
other down. "Somewhat later, when I peeped in, they were lying
affectionately asleep, with their arms around each other."
 Hobhouse, _Morals in Evolution_, vol. ii, p. 367. Dr. Stoecker, in
_Die Liebe und die Frauen_, also insists on the significance of this
factor of personal responsibility.
 Olive Schreiner has especially emphasized the evils of parasitism
for women. "The increased wealth of the male," she remarks ("The Woman's
Movement of Our Day," _Harper's Bazaar_, Jan., 1902), "no more of
necessity benefits and raises the female upon whom he expends it, than the
increased wealth of his mistress necessarily benefits, mentally or
physically, a poodle, because she can then give him a down cushion in
place of one of feathers, and chicken in place of beef." Olive Schreiner
believes that feminine parasitism is a danger which really threatens
society at the present time, and that if not averted "the whole body of
females in civilized societies must sink into a state of more or less
 In Rome and in Japan, Hobhouse notes (op. cit., vol. i, pp. 169,
176), the patriarchal system reached its fullest extension, yet the laws
of both these countries placed the husband in a position of practical
subjugation to a rich wife.
 Herodotus, Bk. ii, Ch. XXXV. Herodotus noted that it was the woman
and not the man on whom the responsibility for supporting aged parents
rested. That alone involved a very high economic position of women. It is
not surprising that to some observers, as to Diodorus Siculus, it seemed
that the Egyptian woman was mistress over her husband.
 Hobhouse (loc. cit.), Hale, and also Grosse, believe that good
economic position of a people involves high position of women. Westermarck
(_Moral Ideas_, vol. i, p. 661), here in agreement with Olive Schreiner,
thinks this statement cannot be accepted without modification, though
agreeing that agricultural life has a good effect on woman's position,
because they themselves become actively engaged in it. A good economic
position has no real effect in raising woman's position, unless women
themselves take a real and not merely parasitic part in it.
 Westermarck (_Moral Ideas_, vol. i, Ch. XXVI, vol. ii, p. 29) gives
numerous references with regard to the considerable proprietary and other
privileges of women among savages which tend to be lost at a somewhat
higher stage of culture.
 The steady rise in the proportion of women among English workers in
machine industries began in 1851. There are now, it is estimated, three
and a half million women employed in industrial occupations, beside a
million and a half domestic servants. (See for details, James Haslam, in a
series of papers in the _Englishwoman_ 1909.)
 See, e.g., J.A. Hobson, _The Evolution of Modern Capitalism_, second
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