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Morals_, "of all the departments of ethics the questions concerning the
relations of the sexes and the proper position of woman are those upon the
future of which there rests the greatest uncertainty." Some progress has
perhaps been made since these words were written, but they still hold true
for the majority of people.
 Concerning economic marriage as a vestigial survival, see, e.g.,
Bloch, _The Sexual Life of Our Time_, p. 212.
 Senancour, _De l'Amour_, vol. ii, p. 233. The author of _The
Question of English Divorce_ attributes the absence of any widespread
feeling against sexual license to the absurd rigidity of the law.
 Bruno Meyer, "Etwas von Positiver Sexualreform," _Sexual-Probleme_,
 Elsie Clews Parsons, _The Family_, p. 351. Dr. Parsons rightly
thinks such unions a social evil when they check the development of
 For evidence regarding the general absence of celibacy among both
savage and barbarous peoples, see, e.g., Westermarck, _History of Human
Marriage_, Ch. VII.
 There are, for instance, two millions of unmarried women in France,
while in Belgium 30 per cent, of the women, and in Germany sometimes even
50 per cent, are unmarried.
 Such a position would not be biologically unreasonable, in view of
the greatly preponderant part played by the female in the sexual process
which insures the conservation of the race. "If the sexual instinct is
regarded solely from the physical side," says D.W.H. Busch (_Das
Geschlechtsleben des Weibes_, 1839, vol. i, p. 201), "the woman cannot be
regarded as the property of the man, but with equal and greater reason the
man may be regarded as the property of the woman."
 Herodotus, Bk. i, Ch. CLXXIII.
 That power and relationship are entirely distinct was pointed out
many years ago by L. von Dargun, _Mutterrecht und Vaterrecht_, 1892.
Westermarck (_Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas_, vol. i, p. 655),
who is inclined to think that Steinmetz has not proved conclusively that
mother-descent involves less authority of husband over wife, makes the
important qualification that the husband's authority is impaired when he
lives among his wife's kinsfolk.
 Robertson Smith, _Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia_; J.G. Frazer
has pointed out (_Academy_, March 27, 1886) that the partially Semitic
peoples on the North frontier of Abyssinia, not subjected to the
revolutionary processes of Islam, preserve a system closely resembling
_beena_ marriage, as well as some traces of the opposite system, by
Robertson Smith called _ba'al_ marriage, in which the wife is acquired by
purchase and becomes a piece of property.
 Spencer and Gillen, _Northern Tribes of Central Australia_, p. 358.
 Rhys and Brynmor-Jones, _The Welsh People_, pp. 55-6; cf. Rhys,
_Celtic Heathendom_, p. 93.
 Rhys and Brynmor-Jones, op. cit., p. 214.
 Crawley (_The Mystic Rose_, p. 41 et seq.) gives numerous instances.
 Revillout, "La Femme dans l'Antiquite," _Journal Asiatique_, 1906,
vol. vii, p. 57. See, also, Victor Marx, _Beitraege zur Assyriologie_,
1899, Bd. iv, Heft 1.
 Donaldson, _Woman_, pp. 196, 241 et seq. Nietzold, (_Die Ehe in_
"_Agypten_," p. 17), thinks the statement of Diodorus that no children
were illegitimate, needs qualification, but that certainly the
illegitimate child in Egypt was at no social disadvantage.
 Amelineau, _La Morale Egyptienne_, p. 194; Hobhouse, _Morals in
Evolution_, vol. i, p. 187; Flinders Petrie, _Religion and Conscience in
Ancient Egypt_, pp. 131 et seq.
 Maine, _Ancient Law_, Ch. V.
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