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women, notwithstanding the modesty and reserve of women. The
sexual sphere is immensely larger in women, so that when its
activity is once aroused it is much more difficult to master or
control. (The reasons were set out in detail in the discussion of
"The Sexual Impulse in Women" in volume iii of these _Studies_.)
It is, therefore, unfair to women, and unduly favors men, when
too heavy a premium is placed on forethought and self-restraint
in sexual matters. Since women play the predominant part in the
sexual field their natural demands, rather than those of men,
must furnish the standard.
With the realization of the moral responsibility of women the natural
relations of life spring back to their due biological adjustment.
Motherhood is restored to its natural sacredness. It becomes the concern
of the woman herself, and not of society nor of any individual, to
determine the conditions under which the child shall be conceived. Society
is entitled to require that the father shall in every case acknowledge the
fact of his paternity, but it must leave the chief responsibility for all
the circumstances of child-production to the mother. That is the point of
view which is now gaining ground in all civilized lands both in theory and
 E.g., E. Belfort Bax, _Outspoken Essays_, p. 6.
 Such reasons are connected with communal welfare. "All immoral acts
result in communal unhappiness, all moral acts in communal happiness," as
Prof. A. Mathews remarks, "Science and Morality," _Popular Science
Monthly_, March, 1909.
 See Westermarck, _Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas_, vol.
i, pp. 386-390, 522.
 Westermarck, _Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas_, pp. 9,
159; also the whole of Ch. VII. Actions that are in accordance with custom
call forth public approval, actions that are opposed to custom call forth
public resentment, and Westermarck powerfully argues that such approval
and such resentment are the foundation of moral judgments.
 This is well recognized by legal writers (e.g., E.A. Schroeder, _Das
Recht in der Geschlechtlichen Ordnung_, p. 5).
 W.G. Sumner (_Folkways_, p. 418) even considers it desirable to
change the form of the word in order to emphasize the real and fundamental
meaning of morals, and proposes the word _mores_ to indicate "popular
usages and traditions conducive to societal reform." "'Immoral,'" he
points out, "never means anything but contrary to the _mores_ of the time
and place." There is, however, no need whatever to abolish or to
supplement the good old ancient word "morality," so long as we clearly
realize that, on the practical side, it means essentially custom.
 Westermarck, op. cit., vol. i, p. 19.
 See, e.g., "Exogamy and the Mating of Cousins," in _Essays Presented
to E.B. Tylor_, 1907, p. 53. "In many departments of primitive life we
find a naive desire to, as it were, assist Nature, to affirm what is
normal, and later to confirm it by the categorical imperative of custom
and law. This tendency still flourishes in our civilized communities, and,
as the worship of the normal, is often a deadly foe to the abnormal and
eccentric, and too often paralyzes originality."
 The spirit of Christianity, as illustrated by Paulinus, in his
_Epistle XXV_, was from the Roman point of view, as Dill remarks (_Roman
Society_, p. 11), "a renunciation, not only of citizenship, but of all the
hard-won fruits of civilization and social life."
 It thus happens that, as Lecky said in his _History of European
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