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Table of contents
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.1
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.2
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.3
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.4
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.5
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.6
FOOTNOTES
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.1
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.2
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.3
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.4
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.5
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.6
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.7
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.8
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.9
MARRIAGE-10.1
MARRIAGE-10.2
MARRIAGE-10.3
MARRIAGE-10.4
MARRIAGE-10.5
MARRIAGE-10.6
MARRIAGE-10.7
MARRIAGE-10.8
MARRIAGE-10.9
MARRIAGE-10.10
MARRIAGE-10.11
MARRIAGE-10.12
FOOTNOTES
THE ART OF LOVE-11.1
THE ART OF LOVE-11.2
THE ART OF LOVE-11.3
THE ART OF LOVE-11.4
THE ART OF LOVE-11.5
THE ART OF LOVE-11.6
THE ART OF LOVE-11.7
THE ART OF LOVE-11.8
THE ART OF LOVE-11.9
THE ART OF LOVE-11.10
THE ART OF LOVE-11.11
FOOTNOTES
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.1
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.2
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.3
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.4
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.5
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.6
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.7
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.8
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.9
FOOTNOTES
INDEX OF AUTHORS

in the first volume of these _Studies_; cf. also, Rudeck, 

_Geschichte der oeffentlichen Sittlichkeit in Deutschland_, 1897, 

pp. 146 et seq.). 

 

The freedom and tolerance of Russian sexual customs is fairly 

well-known. As a Russian correspondent writes to me, "the 

liberalism of Russian manners enables youths and girls to enjoy 

complete independence. They visit each other alone, they walk out 

alone, and they return home at any hour they please. They have a 

liberty of movement as complete as that of grown-up persons; some 

avail themselves of it to discuss politics and others to make 

love. They are able also to procure any books they please; thus 

on the table of a college girl I knew I saw the _Elements of 

Social Science_, then prohibited in Russia; this girl lived with 

her aunt, but she had her own room, which only her friends were 

allowed to enter: her aunt or other relations never entered it. 

Naturally, she went out and came back at what hours she pleased. 

Many other college girls enjoy the same freedom in their 

families. It is very different in Italy, where girls have no 

freedom of movement, and can neither go out alone nor receive 

gentlemen alone, and where, unlike Russia, a girl who has sexual 

intercourse outside marriage is really 'lost' and 'dishonored'" 

(cf. _Sexual-Probleme_, Aug., 1908, p. 506). 

 

It would appear that freedom of sexual relationships in 

Russia--apart from the influence of ancient custom--has largely 

been rendered necessary by the difficulty of divorce. Married 

couples, who were unable to secure divorce, separated and found 

new partners without legal marriage. In 1907, however, an attempt 

was made to remedy this defect in the law; a liberal divorce law 

has been introduced, mutual consent with separation for a period 

of over a year being recognized as adequate ground for divorce 

(Beiblatt to _Geschlecht und Gesellschaft_, Bd. ii, Heft 5, p. 

145). 

 

During recent years there has developed among educated young men 

and women in Russia a movement of sexual license, which, though 

it is doubtless supported by the old traditions of sexual 

freedom, must by no means be confused with that freedom, since it 

is directly due to causes of an entirely different order. The 

strenuous revolutionary efforts made during the last years of the 

past century to attain political freedom absorbed the younger and 

more energetic section of the educated classes, involved a high 

degree of mental tension, and were accompanied by a tendency to 

asceticism. The prospect of death was constantly before their 

eyes, and any pre-occupation with sexual matters would have been 

felt as out of harmony with the spirit of revolution. But during 

the present century revolutionary activity has largely ceased. It 

has been, to a considerable extent, replaced by a movement of 

interest in sexual problems and of indulgence in sexual 

unrestraint, often taking on a somewhat licentious and sensual 

character. "Free love" unions have been formed by the students of 

both sexes for the cultivation of these tendencies. A novel, 

Artzibascheff's _Ssanin_, has had great influence in promoting 

these tendencies. It is not likely that this movement, in its 

more extravagant forms, will be of long duration. (For some 

account of this movement, see, e.g., Werner Daya, "Die Sexuelle 

Bewegung in Russland," _Zeitschrift fuer Sexualwissenschaft_, 

Aug., 1908; also, "Les Associations Erotiques en Russe," _Journal 


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