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Table of contents
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.1
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.2
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.3
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.4
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.5
THE CONQUEST OF THE VENEREAL DISEASES-8.6
FOOTNOTES
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.1
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.2
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.3
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.4
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.5
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.6
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.7
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.8
SEXUAL MORALITY-9.9
MARRIAGE-10.1
MARRIAGE-10.2
MARRIAGE-10.3
MARRIAGE-10.4
MARRIAGE-10.5
MARRIAGE-10.6
MARRIAGE-10.7
MARRIAGE-10.8
MARRIAGE-10.9
MARRIAGE-10.10
MARRIAGE-10.11
MARRIAGE-10.12
FOOTNOTES
THE ART OF LOVE-11.1
THE ART OF LOVE-11.2
THE ART OF LOVE-11.3
THE ART OF LOVE-11.4
THE ART OF LOVE-11.5
THE ART OF LOVE-11.6
THE ART OF LOVE-11.7
THE ART OF LOVE-11.8
THE ART OF LOVE-11.9
THE ART OF LOVE-11.10
THE ART OF LOVE-11.11
FOOTNOTES
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.1
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.2
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.3
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.4
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.5
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.6
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.7
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.8
THE SCIENCE OF PROCREATION-12.9
FOOTNOTES
INDEX OF AUTHORS

(_Monatsschrift fuer praktische Dermatologie_, vol. xxviii, pp. 

296 et seq.) that Chinese records reveal nothing relating to 

syphilis earlier than the sixteenth century. At the Paris Academy 

of Medicine in 1900 photographs from Egypt were exhibited by 

Fouquet of human remains which date from B.C. 2400, showing bone 

lesions which seemed to be clearly syphilitic; Fournier, however, 

one of the greatest of authorities, considered that the diagnosis 

of syphilis could not be maintained until other conditions liable 

to produce somewhat similar bone lesions had been eliminated 

(_British Medical Journal_, September 29, 1900, p. 946). In 

Florida and various regions of Central America, in undoubtedly 

pre-Columbian burial places, diseased bones have been found which 

good authorities have declared could not be anything else than 

syphilitic (e.g., _British Medical Journal_, November 20, 1897, 

p. 1487), though it may be noted that so recently as 1899 the 

cautious Virchow stated that pre-Columbian syphilis in America 

was still for him an open question (_Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_, 

Heft 2 and 3, 1899, p. 216). From another side, Seler, the 

distinguished authority on Mexican antiquity, shows (_Zeitschrift 

fuer Ethnologie_, 1895, Heft 5, p. 449) that the ancient Mexicans 

were acquainted with a disease which, as they described it, might 

well have been syphilis. It is obvious, however, that while the 

difficulty of demonstrating syphilitic diseased bones in America 

is as great as in Europe, the demonstration, however complete, 

would not suffice to show that the disease had not already an 

existence also in the Old World. The plausible theory of Ayala 

that fifteenth century syphilis was a virulent recrudescence of 

an ancient disease has frequently been revived in more modern 

times. Thus J. Knott ("The Origin of Syphilis," _New York Medical 

Journal_, October 31, 1908) suggests that though not new in 

fifteenth century Europe, it was then imported afresh in a form 

rendered more aggravated by coming from an exotic race, as is 

believed often to be the case. 

 

It was in the eighteenth century that Jean Astruc began the 

rehabilitation of the belief that syphilis is really a 

comparatively modern disease of American origin, and since then 

various authorities of weight have given their adherence to this 

view. It is to the energy and learning of Dr. Iwan Bloch, of 

Berlin (the first volume of whose important work, _Der Ursprung 

der Syphilis_, was published in 1901) that we owe the fullest 

statement of the evidence in favor of the American origin of 

syphilis. Bloch regards Ruy Diaz de Isla, a distinguished Spanish 

physician, as the weightiest witness for the Indian origin of the 

disease, and concludes that it was brought to Europe by 

Columbus's men from Central America, more precisely from the 

Island of Haiti, to Spain in 1493 and 1494, and immediately 

afterwards was spread by the armies of Charles VIII in an 

epidemic fashion over Italy and the other countries of Europe. 

 

It may be added that even if we have to accept the theory that 

the central regions of America constitute the place of origin of 

European syphilis, we still have to recognize that syphilis has 

spread in the North American continent very much more slowly and 

partially than it has in Europe, and even at the present day 

there are American Indian tribes among whom it is unknown. 

Holder, on the basis of his own experiences among Indian tribes, 


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